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Apr 7 10 10:10 AM
Apr 8 10 9:06 AM
1975 - "The Godfather: Part II" won half of the top six awards at the 47th Annual Academy Awards at the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in Los Angeles. It won for Best Picture: (Francis Ford Coppola, Gray Frederickson, Fred Roos, producers); Best Director (Francis Ford Coppola); and Best Supporting Actor (Robert De Niro); plus Best Writing/Screenplay Adapted from Other Material (Francis Coppola, Mario Puzo); Best Art Direction/Set Decoration (Dean Tavoularis, Angelo P. Graham, George Nelson; and Best Music/Original Dramatic Score (Nino Rota, Carmine Coppola). The other three crowd-pleaser awards went to Best Actor Art Carney for his "Harry and Tonto" role; to Best Actress Ellen Burstyn for her part in "Alice Doesn’t Live Here Anymore"; and to Ingrid Bergman as Best Supporting Actress in "Murder on the Orient Express". Hosts Sammy Davis Jr., Bob Hope, Shirley MacLaine, and Frank Sinatra livened up the party, even though murder, intrigue and disaster were in the run. The award for Best Music/Song went to Al Kasha & Joel Hirschhorn for "We May Never Love Like This Again" from the "Towering Inferno". "Inferno" also won for Best Cinematography (Fred J. Koenekamp, Joseph F. Biroc) and Best Film Editing (Harold F. Kress & Carl Kress); while Best Sound went to "Earthquake" (Ronald Pierce and Melvin M. Metcalfe, Sr.) and Robert Towne’s "Chinatown" won for Best Writing/Original Screenplay.
1986 - It took 18 years of singing the U.S. national anthem, but on this day, at long last, baritone Robert Merrill of the Metropolitan Opera became the first person to both sing the anthem and throw out the first ball at Yankee Stadium for the Yanks home opener.
Apr 9 10 10:27 AM
The national TV Guide was first published on April 3, 1953. Its premiere issue cover featured a photograph of Lucille Ball's and Desi Arnaz's newborn son, Desi Arnaz, Jr.
TV Guide as a national publication resulted from Walter Annenberg's Triangle Publications' purchase of numerous regional television listing publications such as TV Forecast, TV Digest, Television Guide and TV Guide. The launch as a national publication with local listings in April 1953 became an almost instant success with the magazine becoming the most read and circulated magazine in the country by the 1960s. The initial cost was just 15¢ per copy. In addition to subscriptions, TV Guide was sold from grocery store counters nationwide. Until the 1980s, each issue's features were promoted in a television commercial. Under Triangle Publications, TV Guide continued to grow not only in circulation, but in recognition as the authority on television programming with articles from both staff and contributing writers. Over the decades the shape of the logo has changed to reflect the modernization of the television screen. At first, the logo had various color backgrounds (usually black, white, blue or green) until the familiar red background became a standard in the 1960s with occasional changes to accommodate a special edition.
Under Triangle Publications, TV Guide was first based in a small office in downtown Philadelphia until moving to more spacious national headquarters in Radnor, Pennsylvania in the late 1950s. The new facility, complete with a large lighted TV Guide logo at the building's entrance, was home to management, editors, production personnel, subscription processors as well as a vast computer system holding data on every show and movie available for listing in the popular weekly publication. Printing of the national color section of TV Guide took place at Triangle's Gravure Division plant adjacent to Triangle's landmark Philadelphia Inquirer Building on North Broad Street in Philadelphia. The color section was then sent to regional printers to be wrapped around the local listing sections. Triangle's Gravure Division was known for performing some of the highest quality printing in the industry with almost always perfect registration.
Triangle Publications in addition to TV Guide owned The Philadelphia Inquirer, Philadelphia Daily News, 16 radio and television stations (WFIL AM-FM-TV Philadelphia, PA, WNHC AM-FM-TV New Haven, CT, KFRE AM-FM-TV Fresno, CA, WNBF AM-FM-TV Binghamton, NY, WFBG AM-FM-TV Altoona, PA and WLYH-TV Lancaster/Lebanon, PA) The Daily Racing Form, The Morning Telegraph, Seventeen, and various cable TV interests. It was under Triangle's ownership of WFIL in Philadelphia that Dick Clark and American Bandstand came to popularity. Triangle Publications sold its Philadelphia newspapers to Knight Newspapers in 1969, its radio and television stations during the early 1970s to Capital Cities Communications and various other interests retaining only TV Guide, Seventeen Magazine and the Daily Racing Form. Triangle Publications was sold to News America Corporation in 1988 for $3 billion, one of the largest media deals of the time.The advent of cable TV was hard on TV Guide. Cable channels began to be listed in TV Guide in 1980 or 1981, depending on the edition. Channels were also different, depending on the edition. Each channel was designated by an oblong bullet of 3 letters; for example, (ESN) represented ESPN. To save channel space, some cable channels (mainly pay channels) had an asterisk by them, which meant that it was only listed in the evening grid (and later the Pay-TV Movie Guide). Channels like (MAX) and (DIS) (Cinemax and Disney, respectively) initially started only in the grids but later expanded to the listings as well.
As the years went on, cable channels were added. To help offset this, the issue of May 11–17, 1985 introduced a smaller font with some other cosmetic changes – a show's length was listed after the show's title, not in the description as it was previously. Another listings change took place in 1996; the show's title was no longer listed in all-uppercase, but mixed case as well.TV Guide was purchased from News Corporation in 1999 by United Video Satellite Group, parent company of the Prevue Networks, which itself was later purchased by the maker of the VCR Plus+ device and schedule system, Gemstar-TV Guide International, partially owned by News Corp.By 2003, there was also a list of cable channels (also broadcast channels in some editions) that were listed in the grids only. From its inception until 2003, TV Guide offered listings for the entire week, 24 hours a day. Beginning with the June 21, 2003 issue (in just a few select markets), the 5am-5pm Monday-Friday listings were condensed down to four grids: 5am-8am, 8am-11am, 11am-2pm, 2pm-5pm. If programming differed from one weekday to the next, "Various Programs" was listed. This change became permanent in all TV Guide editions beginning with the 2003 Fall Preview issue. Beginning in January 2004, the midnight-5am listings (and also 5am-8am on the Saturday and Sunday listings) did not include any out-of-town broadcast stations, just the edition's home market. Starting in June 2004 in most editions the channel lineup page showing the stations for each local edition was dropped. Starting in July 2004 the overnight listings were taken out entirely, replaced by a grid that ran from 11pm-2am and had the edition's home market broadcast stations, with a handful of cable stations. It also listed a small selection of late-night movies on some channels. The daytime grids also changed from the 5am-5pm listings, to 7am-7pm. In early 2005 more channels were added to the prime-time and late night grids. The magazine also changed format to start the week's issue with Sunday listings, rather than Saturday listings, changing a tradition that started from the magazine's first issue.
On May 18, 2005, TV Guide launched TV Guide Talk, a weekly podcast available for free. The podcast was headlined by TV Guide reporter/personality Michael Ausiello, and was co-hosted by his co-workers, Angel Cohn, Daniel Manu, and Maitland McDonagh. The podcast was discontinued in 2008 with Ausiello's move to Entertainment Weekly.
The new version of TV Guide went on sale on October 17, 2005, and featured Ty Pennington from Extreme Makeover: Home Edition on the cover. The listings format, now consisting entirely of grids, also changed to start the week's issue with Monday listings rather than Sunday listings.
In September 2006, TV Guide launched a redesigned website with expanded original editorial and user-generated content not included in the print magazine. On December 22, 2006, TV Guide introduced the magazine's first ever two-week edition. The edition, which has Rachael Ray on the cover, was issued for the week of December 25, 2006 to January 7, 2007. In early 2008, the daytime Monday-Friday and late night grids were eliminated from the listings section, and the television highlights section was compressed into a six-page review of the week, rather than the previous two pages for each night.Because most cable systems published their own listing magazine reflecting their channel lineup, and now have a separate guide channel on the remote that opens up to available programming, a printed listing of programming in a separate magazine became less valuable. The sheer amount and diversity of cable TV programming made it hard for TV Guide to provide listings of the extensive array of programming that came directly over the cable system. TV Guide also could not match the ability of the cable box to store personalized listings. TV Guide's circulation went from almost 20 million in 1970 to less than three million in 2007.
With the acquisition of Gemstar-TV Guide by Macrovision on May 2, 2008, that company, which purchased Gemstar-TV Guide to mostly take advantage of their lucrative and profitable VCR Plus and electronic program guide patents, stated they wanted to sell both the magazine and TV Guide Network, along with the company's TVG horse racing channel to other parties. On October 13, 2008, Macrovision sold the money-losing magazine to equity fund OpenGate Capital for $1.00.As part of the sale, however, the companion website was retained by Macrovision(who then sold it to One Equity Partners), with all editorial connections between the magazine and website severed, including the end of Matt Roush's presence on TVGuide.com. In January 2009, the magazine cut several networks from the grid listings, including DIY Network and MTV, citing "space concerns;" however, two cuts, those of The CW and TV Guide Network, were seen as suspicious and arbitrary, as the guide carries several channels which have the same schedule night after night or are low-viewed and could have easily been cut, while several Fox networks continue to be listed due to agreements with the former News Corporation ownership. It is likely that the network's removal from TV Guide listings was related to the "divorce" of the website and network from the magazine.
In early February 2009, the listings for The CW and MTV were readded after much protest to the magazine's email addresses, with the listings for several low-viewed networks removed as a consequence.Today, TV Guide Network runs full length programming, including programs such as the weekly entertainment news magazine, The 411, and red-carpet event coverage (originally hosted by Joan and Melissa Rivers). In mid-2007, the mother-daughter duo were unceremoniously dropped by TV Guide in favor of both Lisa Rinna and Joey Fatone, whose popularities had been on the rise in the wake of their recent appearances on Dancing with the Stars.
Peanuts is a syndicated daily and Sunday comic strip written and illustrated by Charles M. Schulz, which ran from October 2, 1950, to February 13, 2000 (the day after Schulz's death), continuing in reruns afterward. The strip is considered to be one of the most popular and influential in the history of the medium, with 17,897 strips published in all, making it "arguably the longest story ever told by one human being", according to Professor Robert Thompson of Syracuse University. At its peak, Peanuts ran in over 2,600 newspapers, with a readership of 355 million in 75 countries, and was translated into 21 languages. It helped to cement the four-panel gag strip as the standard in the United States, and together with its merchandise earned Schulz more than $1 billion. Reprints of the strip are still syndicated and run in many newspapers.
Peanuts achieved considerable success for its television specials, several of which, including A Charlie Brown Christmas and It's the Great Pumpkin, Charlie Brown won or were nominated for Emmy Awards. The holiday specials remain quite popular and are currently broadcast on ABC in the United States during the corresponding season. The property is also a landmark in theatre with the stage musical You're a Good Man, Charlie Brown being an extremely successful and often performed production.
It has been described as "the most shining example of the American success story in the comic strip field", ironically based on the theme of "the great American unsuccess story", since the main character, Charlie Brown, is meek, nervous and lacks self-confidence, being unable to fly a kite, win a baseball game or kick a football (with the exception of It's Magic, Charlie Brown when he kicked the football while invisible).
Peanuts probably reached its peak in American pop-culture awareness between 1965 and 1982; this period was the heyday of the daily strip, and there were numerous animated specials and book collections.
The entire run of Peanuts, covering nearly 50 years of comic strips, is being reprinted in Fantagraphics' The Complete Peanuts, a 25-volume set to be released over a 12-year period, two volumes per year, published every May and October. The final volume is expected to be published in May 2016. Every Peanuts strip is now also legally available online at Comics.com.
A precursor to Warner’s 3-D presentation occurred in 1922 when The Power of Love opened in Los Angeles. The feature-length movie was filmed in a stereoscopic process called Fairall.
The first official 3-D movie (viewed with special glasses), Bwana Devil, premiered in LA five months before the major studios got into the act. It starred Robert Stack and Barbara Britton. Although the critics panned the flick as “low-grade melodrama with Polaroid glasses,” the long lines at the box office convinced Warner and others to plan their own 3-D productions. In fact, 23 3-D films were released in 1953, The House of Wax being the first.
1955The Ballad of Davy Crockett - Bill HayesCherry Pink and Apple Blossom White - Perez PradoUnchained Melody - Les BaxterIn the Jailhouse Now - Webb Pierce
1963He’s So Fine - The ChiffonsSouth Street - The OrlonsCan’t Get Used to Losing You - Andy WilliamsStill - Bill Anderson
1971Just My Imagination (Running Away with Me) - The TemptationsFor All We Know - CarpentersWhat’s Going On - Marvin GayeAfter the Fire is Gone - Conway Twitty & Loretta Lynn
1979I Will Survive - Gloria GaynorWhat a Fool Believes - The Doobie BrothersSultans of Swing - Dire StraitsI Just Fall in Love Again - Anne Murray
1987Nothing’s Gonna Stop Us Now - StarshipTonight, Tonight, Tonight - GenesisCome Go with Me - ExposeOcean Front Property - George Straitkittencaboudle
Apr 10 10 8:41 AM
1968 - This was not the usual Monday night Oscar celebration at the Santa Monica Civic Auditorium in LA. In fact, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences postponed the 40th Annual Academy Awards ceremonies two days because of the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King. Ironically, the Best Picture of 1967, "In the Heat of the Night" (Walter Mirisch, producer), and "Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner" (Best Actress: Katharine Hepburn) and Best Writing/Story and Screenplay/Written Directly for the Screen (William Rose), have racial themes. "Heat" won four more Oscars that evening: Best Actor (Rod Steiger); Best Writing/Screenplay Based on Material from Another Medium (Stirling Silliphant); Best Sound (Samuel Goldwyn SSD); Best Film Editing (Hal Ashby). Bob Hope, as host, livened up the somber ceremonies as did awards for Best Supporting Actor George Kennedy ("Cool Hand Luke"), Best Supporting Actress Estelle Parsons ("Bonnie and Clyde"); Best Music/Song, "Talk to the Animals" from "Doctor Dolittle" (Leslie Bricusse). Mike Nichols who lost to "The Man for All Seasons" the previous year, won this time, as Best Director for "The Graduate". Other serious contenders for the golden statuette were: "Casino Royale", "Thoroughly Modern Millie", "The Dirty Dozen", "Divorce American Style", "Camelot", "The Jungle Book", "Far from the Madding Crowd", "Valley of the Dolls", "In Cold Blood", "Barefoot in the Park". Some were winners, some not so lucky. 1972 - Once again, the 44th Annual Academy Awards celebration was held at Los Angeles’ Dorothy Chandler Pavilion. And, once again, everyone was spellbound waiting to hear who won Best Picture. It wasn’t an easy decision. The nominees were: "A Clockwork Orange", "Fiddler on the Roof", "The Last Picture Show", "Nicholas and Alexandra" and "The French Connection". And the Oscar goes to ... "The French Connection", Philip D’Antoni, producer. The Oscar also went to "The French Connection" for Best Director (William Friedkin); Best Actor (Gene Hackman); Best Writing/Screenplay Based on Material from Another Medium (Ernest Tidyman); and Best Film Editing (Gerald B. Greenberg). All of the other Best Picture nominees (except "A Clockwork Orange") also received Oscars: "The Last Picture Show" won for both supporting actor and actress (Ben Johnson and Cloris Leachman respectively); "Fiddler on the Roof" won for Best Cinematography (Oswald Morris), Best Sound (Gordon K. McCallum, David Hildyard) and Best Music/Scoring Adaptation/Original Song Score (John Williams); "Nicholas and Alexandra" won the awards for Best Art Direction/Set Decoration (John Box, Ernest Archer, Jack Maxsted, Gil Parrondo, Vernon Dixon) and Best Costume Design (Yvonne Blake, Antonio Castillo). "Klute" won one out of its two nominations: Best Actress (Jane Fonda) and "Shaft" won its only nomination: Best Music/Song (Isaac Hayes, "Theme from Shaft". Other films from 1971 that received accolades ... but not necessarily Oscars: "Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory"; "Sunday Bloody Sunday"; "Carnal Knowledge"; "Summer of ’42", "Bedknobs and Broomsticks"; "Mary, Queen of Scots"; and "McCabe & Mrs. Miller". And much applause went to the hosts of the evening’s festivities: Helen Hayes, Alan King, Sammy Davis Jr., and Jack Lemmon. 1985 - Eddie Murphy’s "Beverly Hills Cop" made it to the top ten on the list of top-grossing motion pictures. The film, at number nine on the list, was the only R-rated and non-summer movie to make the list.
1997 - Rod Steiger received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. TV Events1944 - "Patrolling the Ether" is shown on 3 TV stations simultaneously
Apr 11 10 9:21 AM
Disneyland Paris is a holiday and recreation resort in Marne-la-Vallée, a new town in the eastern suburbs of Paris, France. The complex is located 32 kilometers (20 mi) from the centre of Paris and lies for the most part on the territory of the commune of Chessy, Seine-et-Marne.
Disneyland Paris comprises two theme parks, a retail, dining and entertainment district, and seven Disney-owned hotels. Operating since April 12, 1992, it was the second Disney resort to open outside the United States (following Tokyo Disney Resort) and the first to be owned and operated by Disney. With 15.3 million visitors in the fiscal year of 2008, it is one of Europe's leading tourist destinations.
Disneyland Paris is owned and operated by French company Euro Disney S.C.A., a public company of which 39.78 percent of its stock is held by The Walt Disney Company, 10 percent by the Saudi Prince Alwaleed and 50.22 percent by other shareholders. The senior leader at the resort is chairman and CEO Philippe Gas.Following the success of Disneyland in Anaheim, California and the Walt Disney World Resort in Florida, plans to build a similar theme park in Europe emerged in 1972. Upon the leadership of E. Cardon Walker, Tokyo Disneyland opened in 1983 in Japan with instant success, forming a catalyst for international expansion. In late 1984 the heads of Disney's theme park division, Dick Nunis and Jim Cora, presented a list of approximately 1,200 possible European locations for the park.Michael Eisner, Disney's CEO at the time, signed the first letter of agreement with the French government for the 20-square-kilometer (4,940-acre) site in December 1985, and the first financial contracts were drawn up during the following spring. Construction began in August 1988, and in December 1990, an information centre named "Espace Euro Disney" was opened to show the public what was being constructed. Plans for a theme park next to Euro Disneyland based on the entertainment industry, Disney-MGM Studios Europe, quickly went into development, scheduled to open in 1996 with a construction budget of US$2.3 billion . The construction manager was Bovis.In order to control a maximum of the hotel business, it was decided that 5,200 Disney-owned hotel rooms would be built within the complex. In March 1988, Disney and a council of architects (Frank Gehry, Michael Graves, Robert A.M. Stern, Stanley Tigerman and Robert Venturi) decided on an exclusively American theme in which each hotel would depict a region of the United States. At the time of the opening in April 1992, seven hotels collectively housing 5,800 rooms had been built.
By the year 2017, Euro Disney, under the terms specified in its contract with the French government, will be required to finish constructing a total of 18,200 hotel rooms at varying distances from the resort. An entertainment, shopping and dining complex based on Walt Disney World's Downtown Disney was designed by Frank Gehry.
With its towers of oxidised silver and bronze-coloured stainless steel under a canopy of lights, it opened as Festival Disney.Disneyland Paris encompasses 4,800 acres (19 km2) and contains 2 theme parks, 7 resort hotels, 6 associated hotels, a golf course, railway station and a new town: Val d'Europe.
On March 16, 2002, the Walt Disney Studios Park opened its doors to the public. At 270,000 square metres, it is a continuation on an earlier, never realised concept: the Disney-MGM Studios Europe.
The April 2007 issue of trade magazine Park World reported the following attendance estimates for 2006 compiled by Economic Research Associates in partnership with TEA (formerly the Themed Entertainment Association):
A second theme park, Walt Disney Studios Park, opened to the public March 16, 2002.
In August 2008, Disneyland Paris was the most visited attraction in Europe.*************************
1965 - For the second time, Jack Nicklaus won the Masters golf title. He shot a par 271. Runners-up in a tie for second place were Arnold Palmer and Gary Player. It was the first time the ‘Big Three’ finished 1, 2, 3 in a tournament.
John Stevens was born in New York in 1749; was graduated at King's College, now Columbia, in 1768; was admitted to the bar of the Colonial Provinces of New York and New Jersey, in 1772; and was Treasurer of the State of New Jersey during the active period of the Revolutionary War. In 1784, he purchased Hoboken, then an island; and, residing there upwards of half a century, died in 1838.
In 1798 he was engaged with Chancellor Livingston, Nicholas J. Roosevelt and Isambard Brunel, then an exiled French royalist, afterwards the builder of the Thames Tunnel, in making experiments on steam propulsion on the Passaic River, New Jersey. They tried a horizontal centrifugal wheel, on a boat of 30 tons, drawing water from the bottom of the boat and discharging it at the stern. This is similar to the plan that Ruthven tried in England on the Water Witch," more than half a century afterwards. They also, unsuccessfully, attempted to use elliptical paddle wheels.
STENOTYPEIn 1876, the stenotype was patented by John C. Zachos of New York City (No. 175,892). This was the first U.S. patent for a device for printing legible text in the English alphabet at a high reporting speed, which he called a "typewriter and phonotypic notation." The type was fixed on eighteen shuttle bars, two or more of which may be simultaneously placed in position. The impression was given by a plunger common to all bars. He called his new system of shorthand "stenophonotypy."*******SUBMARINEIn 1900, the U.S. Navy acquired its first submarine, a 53-foot craft designed by Irish immigrant John P. Holland. Propelled by gasoline while on the surface and by electricity when submerged, the Holland served as a blueprint for modern submarine design. By the eve of World War I, Holland and Holland-inspired vessels were a part of large naval fleets throughout the world. In 1896, the Irish-American inventor John Philip Holland designed submarines that, for the first time, made use of internal combustion engine power on the surface and electric battery power for submerged operations. The Holland VI was launched on May 17, 1897 at Navy Lt. Lewis Nixon's Crescent Shipyard of Elizabeth, New Jersey. On April 11, 1900 the United States Navy purchased the revolutionary Holland VI and renamed it the USS Holland (SS-1), America's first commissioned submarine. (John P. Holland's company, the Holland Torpedo Boat Company/Electric Boat Company became General Dynamics "Cold War" progeny and is arguably the builder of the world's most technologically advanced submarines today).
A prototype version of the Plunger-class or A-class submarines, the Fulton, was developed at Nixon's Crescent Shipyard for the United States Navy before the construction of the A-class submarines there in 1901. A naval architect and shipbuilder from the United Kingdom, Arthur Leopold Busch, superintended the development of these first submarines for Holland's company. However the Fulton was never purchased by the U.S. Navy and was eventually sold to the Imperial Russian Navy during the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905. Two other A-class vessels were built on the West Coast of (USA) at Mare Island Naval Shipyard/Union Iron Works circa 1901. In 1902, Holland received a patent for his persistent pursuit to perfect the underwater naval craft. By this time, Holland was no longer in control of the day-to-day operations at Electric Boat, as others were now at the helm of the company he once founded. The acumen of business were now in control of these operations as Holland was forced to step down. His resignation from the company was to be effective as of April 1904.
Many other countries became interested in Holland's products around this time. Holland's innovations and ideas were considered to be the most technologically advanced at the time and were universally acknowledged as such. From 1901 onwards some of Holland's vessels were purchased by the United States Navy and other governments including the United Kingdom, the Imperial Russian Navy, Imperial Japanese Navy and the Royal Netherlands Navy.
Commissioned in June 1900, the French steam and electric submarine Narval introduced the classic double-hull design, with a pressure hull inside the outer light hull. These 200-ton ships had a range of over 100 miles (160 km) on the surface, and over 10 miles (16 km) underwater. The French submarine Aigrette in 1904 further improved the concept by using a diesel rather than a gasoline engine for surface power. Large numbers of these submarines were built, with seventy-six completed before 1914.
Apr 11 10 11:38 AM
"Designing Women" ...... a favorite show of mine...........She had a most beautiful voice.....................
Apr 11 10 10:31 PM
Apr 12 10 1:20 PM
Apr 13 10 7:45 AM
Farmington Maine is now the Earmuff Capital of the World. There is a parade that celebrates Chester's birthday the first Saturday in December, with local police cruisers in the parade decorated as giant earmuffs.
Apr 14 10 7:31 AM
Shortly before midnight on 14 April 1912, four days into the ship's maiden voyage, Titanic struck an iceberg and sank two hours and forty minutes later, early on 15 April 1912. The sinking resulted in the deaths of 1,517 of the 2,223 people on board, making it one of the deadliest peacetime maritime disasters in history. The high casualty rate was due in part to the fact that, although complying with the regulations of the time, the ship did not carry enough lifeboats for everyone aboard. The ship had a total lifeboat capacity of 1,178 people, although her maximum capacity was 3,547. A disproportionate number of men died due to the women and children first protocol that was followed.
The Titanic was designed by some of the most experienced engineers, and used some of the most advanced technologies available at the time. It was popularly believed to have been unsinkable. It was a great shock to many that, despite the extensive safety features, the Titanic sank. The frenzy on the part of the media about Titanic's famous victims, the legends about the sinking, the resulting changes to maritime law, and the discovery of the wreck have contributed to the continuing interest in, and notoriety of, the Titanic.The Titanic was built at the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast, and designed to compete with the rival Cunard Line's Lusitania and Mauretania. The Titanic, along with her Olympic-class sisters, the Olympic and the soon-to-be-built Britannic (which was to be called Gigantic at first), were intended to be the largest, most luxurious ships ever to operate. The designers were Lord Pirrie, a director of both Harland and Wolff and White Star, naval architect Thomas Andrews, Harland and Wolff's construction manager and head of their design department, and Alexander Carlisle, the shipyard's chief draughtsman and general manager. Carlisle's role in this project was the design of the superstructure of these ships, particularly the superstructures' streamlined joining to the hulls as well as the implementation of an efficient lifeboat davit design. Carlisle would leave the project in 1910, before the ships were launched, when he became a shareholder in Welin Davit & Engineering Company Ltd, the firm making the davits.
Construction of RMS Titanic, funded by the American J.P. Morgan and his International Mercantile Marine Co., began on 31 March 1909. Titanic's hull was launched on 31 May 1911, and her outfitting was completed by 31 March the following year. Her length overall was 882 feet 9 inches (269.1 m), the moulded breadth 92 feet 0 inches (28.0 m), the tonnage 46,328 GRT, and the height from the water line to the boat deck of 59 feet (18 m). She was equipped with two reciprocating four-cylinder, triple-expansion steam engines and one low-pressure Parsons turbine, which combined drove three propellers. There were 29 boilers fired by 159 coal burning furnaces that made possible a top speed of 23 knots (43 km/h; 26 mph). Only three of the four 62 feet (19 m) funnels were functional: the fourth, which served only for ventilation purposes, was added to make the ship look more impressive. The ship could carry a total of 3,547 passengers and crew.On the maiden voyage of the Titanic some of the most prominent people of the day were travelling in first-class. Among them were millionaire John Jacob Astor IV and his wife Madeleine Force Astor, industrialist Benjamin Guggenheim, Macy's owner Isidor Straus and his wife Ida, Denver millionairess Margaret "Molly" Brown (known afterwards as the 'Unsinkable Molly Brown' due to her efforts in helping other passengers while the ship sank), Sir Cosmo Duff Gordon and his wife, couturière Lucy (Lady Duff-Gordon), George Elkins Widener and his wife Eleanor; cricketer and businessman John Borland Thayer with his wife Marian and their seventeen-year-old son Jack, journalist William Thomas Stead, the Countess of Rothes, United States presidential aide Archibald Butt, author and socialite Helen Churchill Candee, author Jacques Futrelle his wife May and their friends, Broadway producers Henry and Rene Harris and silent film actress Dorothy Gibson among others. J.P. Morgan was scheduled to travel on the maiden voyage, but cancelled at the last minute.. Travelling in first–class aboard the ship were White Star Line's managing director J. Bruce Ismay and the ship's builder Thomas Andrews, who was on board to observe any problems and assess the general performance of the new ship.
On the night of Sunday, 14 April 1912, the temperature had dropped to near freezing and the ocean was calm. The moon was not visible (being two days before new moon), and the sky was clear. Captain Smith, in response to iceberg warnings received via wireless over the preceding few days, had drawn up a new course which took the ship slightly further southward.
That Sunday at 13:45, a message from the steamer Amerika warned that large icebergs lay in the Titanic's path, but as Jack Phillips and Harold Bride, the Marconi wireless radio operators, were employed by Marconi and paid to relay messages to and from the passengers, they were not focused on relaying such "non-essential" ice messages to the bridge. Later that evening, another report of numerous large icebergs, this time from the Mesaba, also failed to reach the bridge. the telegraph for "full reverse" or "stop" on the engines; survivor testimony on this conflicts). The iceberg brushed the ship's starboard side (right side), buckling the hull in several places and popping out rivets below the waterline over a length of 299 feet (90 m). As seawater filled the forward compartments, the watertight doors shut. However, while the ship could stay afloat with four flooded compartments, five were filling with water. The five water-filled compartments weighed down the ship so that the tops of the forward watertight bulkheads fell below the ship's waterline, allowing water to pour into additional compartments. Captain Smith, alerted by the jolt of the impact, arrived on the bridge and ordered a full stop. Shortly after midnight on 15 April, following an inspection by the ship's officers and Thomas Andrews, the lifeboats were ordered to be readied and a distress call was sent out.
At 23:40, while sailing about 400 miles south of the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, lookouts Fredrick Fleet and Reginald Lee spotted a large iceberg directly ahead of the ship. Fleet sounded the ship's bell three times and telephoned the bridge exclaiming, "Iceberg, right ahead!". First Officer Murdoch gave the order "hard-a-starboard", using the traditional tiller order for an abrupt turn to port (left), and adjusted the engines (he either ordered through Of a total of 2,223 people aboard the Titanic only 706 survived the disaster and 1,517 perished. The majority of deaths were caused by hypothermia in the 28 °F (−2 °C) water. At this water temperature, death could be expected in less than 15 minutes.On 24 March 2009, it was revealed that the fate of 5,900 artefacts retrieved from the wreck will rest with a US District Judge's decision. The ruling will decide whether the artefacts should be placed in a public exhibit or in the hands of private collectors. The judge will also rule on the RMS Titanic Inc.'s degree of ownership of the wreck as well as establishing a monitoring system to check future activity upon the wreck site.
1902 - J.C. (James Cash) Penney opened his first store -- in Kemmerer Wyoming. In partnership with Thomas M. Callahan and William Guy Johnson, Penney named the store Golden Rule. The dry goods and clothing store had a first-year profit of $8,514.36 on sales of $28,898.11.
William Bullock Rotary Perfecting Press 1863The beginnings of the modern, web-fed newspaper pressThis patent model rotary perfecting press was made by Philadelphia's William Bullock in 1863. Two years later, he constructed his first model for his local paper, the Philadelphia Inquirer. Bullock's invention represents the beginning of the modern, web-fed newspaper press, which works from curved, stereotype plates and prints on both sides of the paper in one pass through the machine. It achieved the speed of rotary printing, and by feeding from a continuous roll of paper, it eliminated the laborious hand-feeding required by presses like Hoe's rotary press. Bullock's press was capable of delivering, per hour, about 10,000 flat sheets printed on both sides. Unfortunately, William Bullock did not enjoy the profits from his innovative invention. In 1867, he died as a result of injuries sustained when he got caught in the gears of his press.Kinetoscope parlorIn 1894, the first Kinetoscope parlor opened in New York with five machines. For 25 cents, customers looked through a peephole to view a short film. A motorized film loop was threaded around a number of rollers within a wooden cabinet. Thomas Edison invented these early motion picture machines to do "for the eye what the phonograph does for the ear." After several years of effort, by 1892, Edison with W.K.L. Dickson, had invented the "kinetograph" - a camera to take motion pictures. Edison then began producing films to exhibit. The machines sold for $250 each, but within a year, competitors entered the market, and public interest declined sharply. By then, however, the era of projected pictures had already dawned.Video recorderIn 1956, the first practical commercial black-and-white video recorder was demonstrated at a broadcast convention in Chicago and simultaneously in Redwood City, Ca. The VT-100 by Ampex Corporation of Redwood City was the size of a deep-freeze with an additional five 6-foot racks of circuitry. The 2-inch wide magnetic tape moved at a speed of 15 inches per second. The system had four heads on a disc rotating perpendicularly across the width of the tape, thus tracing an oblique track pattern. A single 14-inch reel could carry a 65-min. recording. The Columbia Broadcasting System purchased three of the video recorders in 1956, priced at $75,000 for each unit.
1980 - Kramer vs. Norma, Apocalypse vs. Jazz. That’s how the honors were divided at the 52nd Annual Academy Awards ceremony at the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in Los Angeles. Johnny Carson was hosting quite a contest! But the Oscar for Best Actor in a Supporting Role went to Melvyn Douglas for his performance in "Being There". Was it going to be an upset? "Being There" was a long shot to win Best Picture and this was its first award all evening. "All That Jazz" had already won four of the golden statuettes and "Apocalypse Now", two. Next, it was Meryl Streep who picked up the Best Supporting Actress Oscar and Dustin Hoffman, Best Actor, for their roles in "Kramer vs. Kramer", making it a trio of Oscars for "Kramer", so far. Then "Norma Rae" picked up two awards: Best Music/Song, "It Goes like It Goes", David Shire (music), Norman Gimbel (lyrics) and Best Actress, Sally Field. But it was in the cards for "Kramer vs. Kramer" as it won for Best Director (Robert Benton), and then, Best Picture (Stanley R. Jaffe, producer). Going into the evening, "All That Jazz" and "Kramer vs. Kramer" each had nine Oscar nominations, "Apocalypse Now" had eight, and "Norma Rae", four.
Apr 15 10 9:51 AM
Apr 16 10 9:28 AM
"In memory and intellect, there was none like him. He systemized every thing. His wit was quick and keen. He could say or write anything he wanted to. He was not very talkative. His temper could hardly be stirred. He wrote much. He could deliver a fine sp
Wilbur Wright was born on April 16, 1867 in Millville, Indiana. He was the third child of Bishop Milton Wright and Susan Catharine Wright. The family moved to Hawthorn Street in Dayton, Ohio. Wilbur Wright, along with his brother Orville, launched into both history books and legend with the first ever manned powered flight. This feat was accomplished through a lifetime's work and commitment."As youngsters, Wilbur and Orville looked to their mother for mechanical expertise and their father for intellectual challenge. Milton brought the boys various souvenirs and trinkets he found during his travels for the church. One such trinket, a toy helicopter-like top, sparked the boys' interest in flying. In school, Wilbur excelled, and would have graduated from high school if his family had not moved during his senior year. A skating accident and his mother's illness and subsequent death kept him from attending college."
Wilbur, a strong-willed individual, was able to repeatedly bounce back from physical and academic setbacks. As he entered adulthood, he teamed with his brother Orville to develop new and unusual schemes.
Among the Wright Brothers' various enterprises were a Printing firm and a Bicycle shop. Both of these ventures showcased their mechanical aptitude, business sense, and originality. This was a continuation of their lifelong partnerships: even as youngsters, Wilbur submitted a journalistic report on a circus production managed by Orville. These complementary traits would serve them as they journeyed down the path of greatness. They were inspired by German glider Otto Lilienthal , and paid close attention to his success and eventual fatal error. His innovation inspired them, as their innovation now inspires us. The spark of interest spread into a genuine desire to fly. "For many years, he once said, he had been 'afflicted with the belief that flight is possible."
Wilbur began to voraciously read everything he could about aviation, from the Smithsonian's to newspapers articles. As all independent thinkers and inventors do, he imagined something completely novel to solve the problem that had plagued other would-be flyers: "a simple system that twisted, or warped the wings of a biplane, causing it to roll right and left." As they say, the "rest is history." The Wright Brothers spent a great deal of time observing birds in flight. They noticed that birds soared into the wind and that the air flowing over the curved surface of their wings created lift. Birds change the shape of their wings to turn and maneuver. The Wrights believed that they could use this technique to obtain roll control by warping, or changing the shape, of a portion of the wing.
This is how the Wright Brothers lived when they camped out at Kill Devil Hills, North Carolina as they tried to make that first historical flight. It was a simple, functional existence. They were settlers of a different kind: pioneering into the frontiers of science.
Their perseverance would again be put to the test, even after making history with the first ever heavier than air, manned, powered flight in 1903. Their achievement was doubted and undermined. "Government bureaucrats thought they were crackpots; others thought that if two bicycle mechanics could build a successful airplane, they could do it themselves. "
Eventually, with persistence, Wilbur and Orville were able to win over both the public and the bureaucrats.
In 1908 and 1909 Wilbur became quite the celebrity, wowing both audiences abroad and at home. He set records in Le Mans , France. As one Frenchman put it: "I would have waited 10 ten times as long to see what I have seen today...Monsieur Wright has us all in his hands." Cartoons and sketches of Wilbur were featured in many French magazines and newspapers. He then returned to the U.S. to captivate a U.S. audience of 1 million as he flew around the Statue of Liberty, and followed the Hudson River to Grant's Tomb.
In 1912 Wilbur died after suffering from typhoid fever. In 1965 he was selected for the Hall of Fame for Great Americans.
Music Events1954 - Roy Orbison attended an Elvis Presley show in Dallas, TX. 1956 - Buddy Holly released his first single, "Blue Days, Black Nights." 1971 - The Rolling Stones released "Brown Sugar"in the UK. It was the first record on their own label, Rolling Stones Records1972 - The Electric Light Orchestra played their first live show in England. Chart Toppers - April 16 1946Oh, What It Seemed to Be - The Frankie Carle Orchestra (vocal: Marjorie Hughes)You Won’t Be Satisfied - The Les Brown Orchestra (vocal: Doris Day)Doctor, Lawyer, Indian Chief - Betty HuttonGuitar Polka - Al Dexter1954Wanted - Perry ComoCross Over the Bridge - Patti PageHere - Tony MartinSlowly - Webb Pierce1962Johnny Angel - Shelley FabaresGood Luck Charm - Elvis PresleySlow Twistin’ - Chubby CheckerShe’s Got You - Patsy Cline1970Let It Be - The BeatlesABC - The Jackson 5Spirit in the Sky - Norman GreenbaumTennessee Bird Walk - Jack Blanchard & Misty Morgan1978Night Fever - Bee GeesStayin’ Alive - Bee GeesLay Down Sally - Eric ClaptonSomeone Loves You Honey - Charley Pride1986Rock Me Amadeus - FalcoKiss - Prince & The RevolutionManic Monday - BanglesShe and I - Alabamakittencaboudle
Apr 17 10 10:09 AM
Franklin is credited as being foundational to the roots of American values and character, a marriage of the practical and democratic Puritan values of thrift, hard work, education, community spirit, self-governing institutions, and opposition to authoritarianism both political and religious, with the scientific and tolerant values of the Enlightenment. In the words of Henry Steele Commager, "In Franklin could be merged the virtues of Puritanism without its defects, the illumination of the Enlightenment without its heat." To Walter Isaacson, this makes Franklin, "the most accomplished American of his age and the most influential in inventing the type of society America would become."
Franklin became a newspaper editor, printer, and merchant in Philadelphia, becoming very wealthy writing and publishing Poor Richard's Almanack and The Pennsylvania Gazette. Franklin was interested in science and technology, and gained international renown for his famous experiments. He played a major role in establishing the University of Pennsylvania and was elected the first president of the American Philosophical Society. Franklin became a national hero in America when he spearheaded the effort to have Parliament repeal the unpopular Stamp Act. An accomplished diplomat, he was widely admired among the French as American minister to Paris and was a major figure in the development of positive Franco-American relations. From 1775 to 1776, Franklin was the Postmaster General under the Continental Congress and from 1785 to 1788, the President of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania. Toward the end of his life, he became one of the most prominent abolitionists.
His colorful life and legacy of scientific and political achievement, and status as one of America's most influential Founding Fathers, have seen Franklin honored on coinage and money; warships; the names of many towns, counties, educational institutions, namesakes, and companies; and more than two centuries after his death, countless cultural references.In 1730, at the age of 24, Franklin publicly acknowledged an illegitimate son named William, who would eventually become the last Loyalist governor of New Jersey. While the identity of William's mother remains unknown, perhaps the responsibility of an infant child gave Franklin a reason to take up residence with Deborah Read. William was raised in the Franklin household but eventually broke with his father over opinions regarding the treatment of the colonies by the British government. The elder Franklin could never accept William's decision to declare his loyalty to the crown.In 1733, Franklin began to publish the famous Poor Richard's Almanack (with content both original and borrowed) under the pseudonym Richard Saunders, on which much of his popular reputation is based. Franklin frequently wrote under pseudonyms. Although it was no secret that Franklin was the author, his Richard Saunders character repeatedly denied it. "Poor Richard's Proverbs," adages from this almanac, such as "A penny saved is twopence dear" (often misquoted as "A penny saved is a penny earned"), "Fish and visitors stink in three days" remain common quotations in the modern world. Wisdom in folk society meant the ability to provide an apt adage for any occasion, and Franklin's readers became well prepared. He sold about ten thousand copies per year (a circulation equivalent to nearly three million today).
In 1758, the year in which he ceased writing for the Almanack, he printed Father Abraham's Sermon, also known as The Way to Wealth. Franklin's autobiography, published after his death, has become one of the classics of the genre.
Daylight saving time (DST) is often erroneously attributed to a 1784 satire that Franklin published anonymously. Modern DST was first proposed by George Vernon Hudson in 1895.
Franklin was a prodigious inventor. Among his many creations were the lightning rod, glass armonica (a glass instrument, not to be confused with the metal harmonica), Franklin stove, bifocal glasses and the flexible urinary catheter. Franklin never patented his inventions; in his autobiography he wrote, "... as we enjoy great advantages from the inventions of others, we should be glad of an opportunity to serve others by any invention of ours; and this we should do freely and generously." His inventions also included social innovations, such as paying forward. Franklin's fascination with innovation could be viewed as altruistic; he wrote that his scientific works were to be used for increasing efficiency and human improvement. One such improvement was his effort to expedite news services through his printing presses.In 1750 he published a proposal for an experiment to prove that lightning is electricity by flying a kite in a storm which appeared capable of becoming a lightning storm. On May 10, 1752 Thomas-François Dalibard of France conducted Franklin's experiment using a 40-foot (12 m)-tall iron rod instead of a kite, and he extracted electrical sparks from a cloud. On June 15 Franklin may have possibly conducted his famous kite experiment in Philadelphia; successfully extracted sparks from a cloud, although there are theories that suggest he never performed the experiment. Franklin's experiment was not written up until Joseph Priestley's 1767 History and Present Status of Electricity; the evidence shows that Franklin was insulated (not in a conducting path, since he would have been in danger of electrocution in the event of a lightning strike). Others, such as Prof. Georg Wilhelm Richmann of Saint Petersburg, Russia, were electrocuted during the months following Franklin's experiment.By the time Franklin arrived in Philadelphia on May 5, 1775, the American Revolution had begun with fighting at Lexington and Concord. The New England militia had trapped the main British army in Boston. The Pennsylvania Assembly unanimously chose Franklin as their delegate to the Second Continental Congress. In June 1776, he was appointed a member of the Committee of Five that drafted the Declaration of Independence. Although he was temporarily disabled by gout and unable to attend most meetings of the Committee, Franklin made several small changes to the draft sent to him by Thomas Jefferson.
At the signing, he is quoted as having replied to a comment by Hancock that they must all hang together: "Yes, we must, indeed, all hang together, or most assuredly we shall all hang separately."Franklin died on April 17, 1790, at age 84. Approximately 20,000 people attended his funeral. He was interred in Christ Church Burial Ground in Philadelphia. In 1728, aged 22, Franklin wrote what he hoped would be his own epitaph:
The Body of B. Franklin Printer; Like the Cover of an old Book, Its Contents torn out, And stript of its Lettering and Gilding, Lies here, Food for Worms. But the Work shall not be wholly lost: For it will, as he believ'd, appear once more, In a new & more perfect Edition, Corrected and Amended By the Author.
The Body of B. Franklin Printer; Like the Cover of an old Book, Its Contents torn out, And stript of its Lettering and Gilding, Lies here, Food for Worms. But the Work shall not be wholly lost: For it will, as he believ'd, appear once more, In a new & more perfect Edition, Corrected and Amended By the Author.
Franklin's actual grave, however, as he specified in his final will, simply reads "Benjamin and Deborah Franklin."
Apr 18 10 11:55 AM
The 1906 San Francisco earthquake was caused by a rupture on the San Andreas Fault, a continental transform fault that forms part of the boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate. This fault runs the length of California from the Salton Sea in the south to Cape Mendocino to the north, a distance of about 800 miles (1,300 km). The earthquake ruptured the northern third of the fault for a distance of 296 miles (477 km). The maximum observed surface displacement was about 20 feet (6 m); however, geodetic measurements show displacements of up to 28 feet (8.5 m).
A strong foreshock preceded the mainshock by about 20 to 25 seconds. The strong shaking of the main shock lasted about 42 seconds. The shaking intensity as described on the Modified Mercalli intensity scale reached VIII in San Francisco and up to IX in areas to the north like Santa Rosa where destruction was devastating.
There were decades of minor earthquakes – more than at any other time in the historical record for northern California – before the 1906 quake. Widely interpreted previously as precursory activity to the 1906 earthquake, they have been found to have a strong seasonal pattern and have been postulated to be due to large seasonal sediment loads in coastal bays that overlie faults as a result of the erosion caused by "hydraulic mining" in the later years of the California Gold Rush.
As damaging as the earthquake and its aftershocks were, the fires that burned out of control afterward were even more destructive. It has been estimated that up to 90% of the total destruction was the result of the subsequent fires. Over 30 fires, caused by ruptured gas mains, destroyed approximately 25,000 buildings on 490 city blocks. Worst of all, many were started when firefighters, untrained in the use of dynamite, attempted to demolish buildings to create firebreaks, which resulted in the destruction of more than 50% of the buildings that would have otherwise survived. The city's Fire Chief, Dennis T. Sullivan, who would have been responsible, had died in the initial quake. The dynamited buildings themselves often caught fire. In all, the fires burned for four days and nights.
Due to a widespread practice by insurers to indemnify San Francisco properties from fire, but not earthquake damage, most of the destruction in the city was blamed on the fires. Some property owners deliberately set fire to damaged properties, in order to claim them on their insurance; this ultimately served no purpose, as wealthier citizens of the city shouldered the costs of repairing an estimated 80% of the city. Capt. Leonard D. Wildman of the U.S. Army Signal Corps reported that he "was stopped by a fireman who told me that people in that neighborhood were firing their houses...they were told that they would not get their insurance on buildings damaged by the earthquake unless they were damaged by fire."Property losses from the disaster have been estimated to be more than $400 million. An insurance industry source tallies insured losses at $235 million (equivalent to $5.67 billion in 2009 dollars).
As water mains were also broken, the city fire department had few resources with which to fight the fires. Several fires in the downtown area merged to become one giant inferno. Brigadier General Frederick Funston, commander of the Presidio of San Francisco and a resident of San Francisco, tried to bring the fire under control by detonating blocks of buildings around the fire to create firebreaks with all sorts of means, ranging from black powder and dynamite to even artillery barrages. Often the explosions set the ruins on fire or helped spread it.The earthquake was also responsible for the development of the Pacific Heights neighborhood. The immense power of the earthquake had destroyed almost all of the mansions on Nob Hill except for the Flood Mansion. Others which hadn't been destroyed were dynamited by the Army forces aiding the firefighting efforts in attempts to create firebreaks. As one indirect result, the wealthy looked westward where the land was cheap and relatively undeveloped, and where there were better views and a consistently warmer climate. Constructing new mansions without reclaiming and clearing old rubble simply sped attaining new homes in the tent city during the reconstruction.In the years after the first world war, the "money" on Nob Hill migrated to Pacific Heights, where it has remained to this day.
Reconstruction was swift, and largely completed by 1915, in time for the Panama-Pacific Exposition which celebrated the reconstruction of the city and its "rise from the ashes". Since 1915, the city has officially commemorated the disaster each year by gathering the remaining survivors at Lotta's Fountain, a fountain in the city's financial district that served as a meeting point during the disaster for people to look for loved ones and exchange information.
Almost immediately after the quake (and even during the disaster), planning and reconstruction plans were hatched to quickly rebuild the city. Rebuilding funds were immediately tied up by the fact that virtually all the major banks had been sites of the conflagration, requiring a lengthy wait of seven-to-ten days before their fire-proof vaults could cool sufficiently to be safely opened without risk of spontaneous combustion. Tiny Bank of Italy, however, had no vault and evacuated its funds to the country and was the only bank able to provide liquidity in the immediate aftermath. Its president also immediately chartered and financed the sending of two ships to return with shiploads of lumber from Washington and Oregon mills which provided the initial reconstruction materials and surge; today that bank has been renamed as Bank of America.
One landmark building lost in the fire was the Palace Hotel, subsequently rebuilt, which had many famous visitors, including royalty and celebrated performers. It was constructed in 1875 primarily financed by Bank of California co-founder William Ralston, the "man who built San Francisco". In April 1906, the world's greatest tenor, Enrico Caruso, and members of the Metropolitan Opera Company came to San Francisco to give a series of performances at the Tivoli Opera House. The night after Caruso's performance in Carmen, the tenor was awakened in the early morning in his Palace Hotel suite by a strong jolt. Clutching an autographed photo of President Theodore Roosevelt, Caruso made an effort to get out of the city, first by boat and then by train, and vowed never to return to San Francisco. He kept his word. The Metropolitan Opera Company lost all of its travelling sets and costumes in the earthquake and ensuing fires.
Some of the greatest losses from fire were in scientific laboratories. Alice Eastwood, the Curator of Botany at the California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco, is credited with saving nearly 1,500 specimens, including the entire type specimen collection for a newly discovered and extremely rare species, before the remainder of the largest botanical collection in the western United States was consumed by fire. The entire laboratory and all the records of Benjamin R. Jacobs, a biochemist who was researching the nutrition of everyday foods, was lost. Another treasure lost in the fires was the original California flag used in the 1846 Bear Flag Revolt at Sonoma, which at the time was being stored in a state building in San Francisco.During the first few days, soldiers provided valuable services patrolling streets to discourage looting and guarding buildings such as the US Mint, post office, and county jail. They aided the fire department in dynamiting to demolish buildings in the path of the fires. The Army also became responsible for feeding, sheltering, and clothing the tens of thousands of displaced residents of the city. Under the command of Funston's superior, Major General Adolphus Greely, Commanding Officer, Pacific Division, over 4,000 troops saw service during the emergency. On July 1, 1906, civil authorities assumed responsibility for relief efforts, and the Army withdrew from the city.
On April 18, in response to riots among evacuees and looting, Mayor Schmitz issued and ordered posted a proclamation that "The Federal Troops, the members of the Regular Police Force and all Special Police Officers have been authorized by me to kill any and all persons found engaged in Looting or in the Commission of Any Other Crime." It is estimated that as many as 500 people were shot dead in the city, many of whom, it has been suggested, were not looting at all, but were attempting to save their own possessions from the advancing fire. In addition, accusations of soldiers themselves engaging in looting also surfaced. London, England, had raised hundreds of thousands of dollars. Individual citizens and businesses donated large sums of money for the relief effort: Standard Oil gave $100,000; Andrew Carnegie gave $100,000; the Dominion of Canada made a special appropriation of $100,000 and even the Bank of Canada in Toronto gave $25,000. The US government quickly voted for one million dollars in relief supplies which were immediately rushed to the area, including supplies for food kitchens and many thousands of tents that city dwellers would occupy the next several years. These relief efforts, however, were not nearly enough to get families on their feet again, and consequently the burden was placed on wealthier members of the city, who were reluctant to assist in the rebuilding of homes they were not responsible for. All residents were eligible for daily meals served from a number of communal soup kitchens and citizens as far away as Idaho and Utah were known to send daily loaves of bread to San Francisco as relief supplies as co-ordinated by the railroads.
Insurance companies, faced with staggering claims of $250 million, paid out between $235 million and $265 million on policyholders' claims, often for fire damage only, since shake damage from earthquakes was excluded from coverage under most policies. At least 137 insurance companies were directly involved and another 17 as reinsurers. Twenty companies went bankrupt, and most excluded shake damage claims. However, Lloyds of London reports having paid all claims in full, more than 50 million dollars and the insurance companies in Hartford, Connecticut report also paying every claim in full; the Hartford Fire Insurance Company paying over 11 million dollars and Aetna Insurance Company almost $3 million.
The earthquake was the worst single incident for the insurance industry before the September 11, 2001 attacks, and the largest US relief effort ever to this day, including even Hurricane Katrina. After the 1906 earthquake, a global discussion arose concerning a legally flawless exclusion of the earthquake hazard from fire insurance contracts. It was pressed ahead mainly by re-insurers. Their aim was the globally uniform solution of the problem of earthquake hazard in fire insurance contracts. Until 1910, a few countries, especially in Europe, followed the call for an exclusion of the earthquake hazard from all fire insurance contracts. In the US, however, the question was discussed differently. But the traumatized public reacted with fierce opposition. On August 1, 1909, the California Senate enacted the California Standard Form of Fire Insurance Policy, which did not contain any earthquake clause. Thus the state decided that insurers would have to pay again if another earthquake was followed by fires. Other earthquake-endangered countries followed the California example. The insurance payments heavily affected the international financial system. Gold transfers from European insurance companies to policyholders in San Francisco led to a rise in interest rates, subsequently to a lack of available loans and finally to the Knickerbocker Trust Company crisis of October 1907 which led to the Panic of 1907.
The 1906 Centennial Alliance was set up as a clearing-house for various centennial events commemorating the earthquake. Award presentations, religious services, a National Geographic TV movie, a projection of fire onto the Coit Tower, memorials, and lectures were part of the commemorations. The USGS Earthquake Hazards Program issued a series of Internet documents, and the tourism industry promoted the 100th anniversary as well.For a number of years, the epicenter of the quake was assumed to be near the town of Olema, in the Point Reyes area of Marin County, because of evidence of the degree of local earth displacement. In the 1960s, a seismologist at UC Berkeley proposed that the epicenter was more likely offshore of San Francisco, to the northwest of the Golden Gate. However, the most recent analysis by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) shows that the most likely epicenter was very near Mussel Rock on the coast of Daly City, an adjacent suburb just south of San Francisco. An offshore epicenter is supported by the occurrence of a local tsunami recorded by a tidal gauge at the San Francisco Presidio; the wave had an amplitude of approximately 3 in (8 cm) and an approximate period of 40–45 minutes.
The most important characteristic of the shaking intensity noted in Lawson's (1908) report was the clear correlation of intensity with underlying geologic conditions. Areas situated in sediment-filled valleys sustained stronger shaking than nearby bedrock sites, and the strongest shaking occurred in areas of Bay where landfill failed in the earthquake (earthquake liquefaction). Modern seismic-zonation practice accounts for the differences in seismic hazard posed by varying geologic conditions.
The USGS estimates that the earthquake measured a powerful 7.9 on the moment magnitude scale. The earthquake caused ruptures visible on the surface for a length of 470 kilometers (290 miles). Modified Mercalli Intensities of VII to IX paralleled the length of the rupture, extending as far as 80 kilometers inland from the fault trace
1945 - It was on Ie Shima, a small island off Okinawa, that Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist Ernie Pyle’s career came to an end. Worrying more about his Army buddies than himself, he didn’t take cover but turned to ask if they were OK while under Japanese sniper fire. He took a bullet in the left temple. A memorial on the site where Ernest T. Pyle was killed reads, "At this spot the 77th Infantry Division lost a buddy. Ernie Pyle 18 April 1945". Once buried there, his remains now lie at the National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific in Punchbowl Crater on Oahu, Hawaii. Pyle was awarded the Purple Heart posthumously. 1945 - American war correspondent Ernie Pyle was killed by Japanese gunfire on the Pacific island of Ie Shima, off Okinawa. He was 44 years old.
1981 - Tom Seaver of the Cincinnati Reds became the fifth pitcher in the history of major-league baseball to earn 3,000 strikeouts in a career. Seaver struck out Keith Hernandez for the historic ‘K’. The Cardinals, however, beat Tom Terrific, 10-4.1995 - Quarterback Joe Montana announces his retirement from football 1999 - Wayne Gretzky (New York Rangers) played his final game in the NHL. He retired as the NHL's all-time leading scorer and holder of 61 individual records. Golf Events1954 - Louise Suggs wins LPGA Babe Didrikson-Zaharias Golf Open
1976 - Judy Rankin wins LPGA Karsten - Ping Golf Open 1993 - 54th PGA Seniors Golf Championship Tom Wargo 1993 - Trish Johnson wins LPGA Atlanta Women's Golf Championship Plays, Operas and Musicals Premiers and Events1796 - "The Archers" by Benjamin Carr was performed in New York City. It was the first opera written by an American composer1907 - Augustus Thomas' "Witching Hour", premieres in NYC 1921 - Philip James Barry's "Punch for Judy", premieres in NYC 1944 - Leonard Bernstein & Jerome Robbins' ballet "Fancy Free" premieres in NYC 1946 - "Call Me Mister" opens at National Theater NYC for 734 performances 1951 - "Make a Wish" opens at Winter Garden Theater NYC for 102 performances 1953 - "Pal Joey" closes at Broadhurst Theater NYC after 542 performances 1955 - "Ankles Aweigh" opens at Mark Hellinger Theater NYC for 176 performances 1963 - "Sophie" opens at Winter Garden Theater NYC for 8 performances 1964 - Van Joe Orton's "Entertaining Mr Sloane"1965 - Marian Anderson ended her 30-year singing career with a concert at Carnegie Hall in New York City. 1968 - Mart Crowley's "Boys in the Band", premieres in NYC 1968 - Peter Luke's "Hadrian VII", premieres in London 1972 - "Lost in the Stars" opens at Imperial Theater NYC for 39 performances 1977 - Stephen Sondheim's musical "Side by Side" premieres at Music Box NYC for 390 performances 1985 - Liberace grossed more than $2,000,000 for his engagement at New York City's Radio City Music Hall. He broke his own record of $1.6 million. 1993 - "Ain't Broadway Grand" opens at Lunt-Fontanne Theater NYC for 25 performances 1994 - "Beauty & the Beast" opens at Palace Theater NYC 1996 - "A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum", opens at St James Theater NYC for 715 performances Plays, Operas and Musicals Closed
1966 - Bob Hope did it again after six years! He both hosted and received an award at the 38th Annual Academy Awards celebration at the Santa Monica Civic Auditorium in Los Angeles. This time he received a gold medal, the Honorary Award for unique and distinguished service to the film industry and the Academy. Other award recipients included Shelley Winters for her Best Supporting Actress role in "A Patch of Blue"; Martin Balsam, Best Supporting Actor for his performance in "A Thousand Clowns". The Best Actor Oscar went to Lee Marvin ("Cat Ballou"); and Julie Christie picked up the Best Actress Oscar ("Darling"). The Oscar for the Best Music/Song from a 1965 movie was "The Shadow of Your Smile" from "The Sandpiper" (Johnny Mandel-music, Paul Francis Webster-lyrics). It’s a good thing that the "Oscars" were being broadcast in color this night (the first time) because the Best Director and Best Picture winner was "The Sound of Music" (Robert Wise, producer and director). We don’t think the hills wouldn’t look very alive in black and white.
1957 - Comedian Johnny Carson turned briefly to TV acting in a role on the "Playhouse 90" production of "Three Men on a Horse" on CBS-TV. Carson, of "Who Do You Trust?" fame, was five years from becoming the host of "The Tonight Show".
1974 - James Brown, the ‘Godfather of Soul’, received a gold record this day for the single, "The Payback". Of the 44 hits that Brown would put on the charts over three decades, he received only one other gold record -- for "Get on the Good Foot - Part 1" in 1972. His biggest pop hits include: "I Got You (I Feel Good)" at number three in 1965, "Papa’s Got a Brand New Bag" at number eight in 1965, "It’s a Man’s Man’s Man’s World" at number eight in 1966, "I Got The Feelin’" at number six in 1968 and "Living in America" at number four in 1986. This song was featured in the Sylvester Stallone film, "Rocky IV".
Aretha Franklin set the record for longest gap between #1 U.S. singles. The span of time from "Respect" (June 1967) to "I Knew You Were Waiting (For Me)" was 19 years, ten months. Chart Toppers - April 18 1948Now is the Hour - Bing CrosbyI’m Looking Over a Four Leaf Clover - The Art Moonie OrchestraBut Beautiful - Frank SinatraAnytime - Eddy Arnold1956Heartbreak Hotel/I Was the One - Elvis PresleyThe Poor People of Paris - Les BaxterLong Tall Sally - Little RichardBlue Suede Shoes - Carl Perkins1964Can’t Buy Me Love - The BeatlesTwist and Shout - The BeatlesSuspicion - Terry StaffordUnderstand Your Man - Johnny Cash1972The First Time Ever I Saw Your Face - Roberta FlackI Gotcha - Joe TexRockin’ Robin - Michael JacksonMy Hang-Up is You - Freddie Hart1980Another Brick in the Wall - Pink FloydCall Me - BlondieRide like the Wind - Christopher CrossHonky Tonk Blues - Charley Pride1988Get Outta My Dreams, Get Into My Car - Billy OceanDevil Inside - INXSWhere Do Broken Hearts Go - Whitney HoustonI Wanna Dance with You - Eddie Rabbitt
Apr 19 10 11:44 AM
1924 - A new show joined the airwaves. "The Chicago Barn Dance" aired on WLS radio in the Windy City. Later, the famous program would be renamed "The National Barn Dance". This program was the first country music jamboree on radio. ("The Grand Ole Opry" on WSM Radio in Nashville, TN began in 1925.) "National Barn Dance" continued for many years on the radio station that was owned by retailer, Sears Roebuck & Co. WLS, in fact, stood for ‘World’s Largest Store’. Though the "Barn Dance" gave way to rock music and now, talk radio, "The Grand Ole Opry" continues each weekend in Nashville.
1943 - Eve Graham (Evelyn May Beatsom) (singer: group: The New Seekers: Look What They’ve Done to My Song Ma, I’d Like To Teach The World To Sing) Born in Auchterarder, Perth and Kinross, Scotland in1943.
1946 - Tim Curry (actor: Muppet Treasure Island, Home Alone 2: Lost in New York, Oscar, Stephen King’s It, The Hunt for Red October, Oliver Twist, Annie, The Rocky Horror Picture Show, My Favorite Year, Amadeus, Hair, Wiseguy, The Legend of Prince Valiant, voice of King Chicken in cartoon: Duckman, Lemony Snicket’s A Series of Unfortunate Events) Born in 1946 Grappenhall, Cheshire, England, UK 1947 - Mark Volman (musician: saxophone, singer: groups: Nightriders, Crossfires, The Turtles: It Ain’t Me Babe, Let Me Be, You Baby, Happy Together, She’d Rather be with Me, Elenore, You Showed Me; duo: Phlorescent Leech and Eddie aka Flo and Eddie: LP: Rock Steady with Flo and Eddie) Born in 1947.
1959 - Singer Harry Belafonte appeared in the first of two benefit concerts for charity at Carnegie Hall in New York City.
1967 - Nancy Sinatra and her dad, Frank, found a gold record award in the mailbox, for their collaboration on the hit single, "Something Stupid".
Apr 20 10 8:21 AM
Christopher Robin Milne born 21 August 1920 was the son of author A. A. Milne. As a young child, he was the basis of the character Christopher Robin in his father's Winnie-the-Pooh stories and in two books of poems. Christopher Robin is a ‘Winnie the Pooh’ character brought to life by Alan Alexander Milne. The character of Christopher Robin is based upon author A.A. Milne’s son, Christopher Robin Milne. Christopher Robin’s often utters the phrase “Silly old bear” and the comic thing about his characters’ depiction is that he wears uneven socks.
Christopher Robin Milne was born at 11 Mallord St, Chelsea, London at 8 a.m to author Alan Alexander Milne and Dorothy Milne (née de Sélincourt). His parents had expected the baby to be a girl, and had chosen the name Rosemary. When it turned out to be a boy, they initially intended to call him Billy, but decided that this would be too informal. They gave him two first names to help distinguish him from other Milnes, each parent choosing a name. Although he was officially named Christopher Robin, his parents often referred to him as "Billy". When he began to talk, he pronounced his surname as Moon instead of Milne. After then, his family would often call him "Billy", "Moon", or "Billy Moon". In later life, he became known as simply "Christopher".On his first birthday, he received an Alpha Farnell teddy bear he called Edward. This bear, along with a real bear named "Winnie" that Milne saw at the London Zoo, eventually became the inspiration for the character of Winnie-the-Pooh. The teddy bear was about two feet tall, light in color, frequently losing his eyes, and a fairly constant companion to Milne.
As was customary for upper-class and upper-middle-class children at the time, Milne was reared by a nanny – Olive Brockwell. Meetings with his parents were restricted to short periods just after breakfast, at tea time, and in the evening, just before he went to bed. As he grew up, he spent more time with them; however, they spent little time together, so Milne divided his own time between his mother and his father.
Time spent with his father led to Milne's love of mathematics and cricket, as well as to their shared pacifism. Though Milne spoke self-deprecatingly of his intellect, referring to himself many times as being "dim", he was intelligent for a boy of his age. The reason for his denial of his intelligence was that he was able to solve complex equations with little or no difficulty but had to concentrate on much simpler ones.
From his mother, Milne acquired a talent for working with his hands. He owned a small tool kit, which he used to take apart and then reassemble the lock on his nursery door when he was seven years old. By the age of 10, he had modified the works of a grandfather clock, and altered a cap gun so that it would shoot real bullets.
In his childhood, Milne was fond of being associated with his father's books, helping him to write a few of the stories. Once, he went so far as to organize a short play for his parents, reenacting a story about himself and his friends in the woods. However, after starting school, he was mocked by his peers, who recited passages from the books, particularly from the poem Vespers: "Hush! Hush! Whisper who dares! Christopher Robin is saying his prayers." Milne therefore grew to resent the attention that his father's success had brought to him.
Milne first attended the Gibbs School, an independent school in London, in 1929. At the age of nine he went on to Stowe School, an independent boys' school in Buckinghamshire, where he learned to box as a way to defend himself from the taunts of his classmates. In 1939, he won a scholarship to study English at Trinity College, Cambridge.When World War II broke out, Milne left his studies and attempted to join the army, but failed the medical examination. His father used his influence to get Milne a position with the second training battalion of the Royal Engineers. He received his commission in July 1942 and was posted to the Middle East and Italy.
While serving abroad, he began to resent what he saw as his father's exploitation of his childhood and came to hate the books that had thrust him into the public eye. After being discharged from the army, he went to Cambridge to complete his studies and graduated with a Third Class Honours degree in English.
On 24 July 1948, Milne married his first cousin, Lesley Sélincourt. His mother disliked the marriage, partly because she did not get along with her brother, Lesley's father Aubrey. (She had wanted her son to marry his childhood friend, Anne Darlington.) In 1951, Milne and his wife moved to Dartmouth to found the Harbour Bookshop, which turned out to be a success, though Dorothy had thought the decision very odd, inasmuch as Milne did not seem to like "business", and as a bookseller would regularly have to meet Pooh fans. While both of these factors did cause them frustrations, Milne and his wife ran their bookshop for many years without any help from royalties from sales of the Pooh books. He occasionally visited his father after the elder Milne became ill, but once his father died, he did not see his mother during the 15 years that passed before her death; even when she was on her death bed she refused to see her son.
A few months after his father's death in 1956, Christopher's daughter Clare was born, and diagnosed with severe cerebral palsy. She would later run a charity for the disabled called the Clare Milne Trust.....................
In 1974, Milne published the first of three autobiographical books. The Enchanted Places gave an account of his childhood and of the problems that he had encountered because of the Pooh books.
Milne gave the original stuffed animals that inspired the Pooh characters to the editor of the books, who in turn donated them to the New York City Public Library; Marjorie Taylor (in her book Imaginary Companions and the Children Who Create Them) recounts how many were disappointed at this, and Milne had to explain that he preferred to concentrate on the things that currently interested him.
Milne lived for some years with myasthenia gravis and died in his sleep on 20 April 1996. After his passing Milne was claimed by one newspaper to have been a "dedicated atheist"."The books live on. But in real life Toad is dead; Alice is dead; Peter Pan and Wendy are long flown; and now Christopher Robin, a 'sweet and decent' man who overcame a childhood in which he was haunted by Pooh and taunted by peers, has left without saying his prayers - he was a dedicated atheist - aged 75." Euan Ferguson, 'Robin's gone, but swallows linger on,' The Observer, 28 April 1996.Timothy Turner provided the voice for Christopher Robin in the Disney Winnie the Pooh movies. Some of the quotes of Christopher Robin:
Silly Old Bear Tat-tat, It looks like rain What's up?Did I put your tail back on properly? Just doing nothing Promise you won't forget me
1931 - The great Knute Rockne died in a plane crash on March 31, 1931. It would be tough to fill his shoes. On this day, twenty days later, Jesse Harper became the new athletic director and Heartley ‘Hunk’ Anderson took over as coach of Notre Dame. Anderson coached the Fighting Irish from 1931-33. Elmer Layden replaced Anderson from 1934-40 and Frank Leahy coached Notre Dame twice -- from 1941-43 and from 1946-53.
1969 - Ken Harrelson just about quit major-league baseball this day. Harrelson was being traded from the Boston Red Sox, an American League contender, to the Cleveland Indians, a perennial American League non-contender. However, the almighty dollar came to the rescue and Harrelson played for the Tribe in Cleveland after all.
1987 - "Starlight Express" posted the largest week’s gross in Broadway history. The roller-skating musical earned $606,081 at the box office. The revival of "The King and I" starring Yul Brynner had been the previous leader (1985).
1931 - Louis Armstrong recorded the classic, "When It’s Sleepy Time Down South", for Okeh Records. Satchmo would use the tune as his theme song for decades. The song was waxed in Chicago, IL.
1985 - The British pop music group Wham!, featuring George Michael, became the first to release cassettes in the People’s Republic of China. Selections from two of the group’s albums were packaged and sold on the tape. 1987 - Ozzy Osbourne released the album "Tribute." It was a live album recorded with Randy Rhoads. Rhoads had died in 1982. 1992 - Pavement's album "Slanted and Chanted" was released. 1993 - Shania Twain released her self-titled debut album. 1994 - In London, Barbra Streisand began her first tour in 28 years. Chart Toppers - April 20 1950If I Knew You Were Comin’ I’d’ve Baked a Cake - Eileen BartonMusic, Music, Music - Teresa BrewerPeter Cottontail - Gene AutryLong Gone Lonesome Blues - Hank Williams1958He’s Got the Whole World (In His Hands) - Laurie LondonBook of Love - The MonotonesDon’t You Just Know It - Huey (Piano) Smith & The ClownsOh Lonesome Me - Don Gibson1966The Ballad of the Green Berets - SSgt Barry Sadler(You’re My) Soul and Inspiration - The Righteous BrothersDaydream - The Lovin’ SpoonfulI Want to Go with You - Eddy Arnold1974TSOP (The Sound of Philadelphia) - MFSB featuring The Three DegreesBest Thing that Ever Happened to Me - Gladys Knight & The PipsThe Loco-Motion - Grand FunkA Very Special Love Song - Charlie Rich1982I Love Rock ’N Roll - Joan Jett & The BlackheartsWe Got the Beat - Go-Go’sChariots of Fire - Titles - VangelisThe Clown - Conway Twitty1990I’ll Be Your Everything - Tommy PageDon’t Wanna Fall in Love - Jane ChildNothing Compares 2 U - Sinead O’ConnorFive Minutes - Lorrie Morgan
Apr 21 10 8:30 AM
1949 - The prestigious George Foster Peabody Award for Broadcasting was presented to "You Bet Your Life" star, “The one, the only, Groucho Marx.” This was the first time the honor had been awarded to a comedian.
1970 - Sportscaster Curt Gowdy was the recipient of the coveted George Foster Peabody Award for achievement in radio and television. Curt, a long-time voice of the Boston Red Sox, NBC and ABC Sports and syndicated programs (including "The American Sportsman"), was the first sports broadcaster to receive the honor.
1980 - America’s oldest long-distance race, the Boston Marathon, was touched by scandal this day. Actually, the race was sullied, tarnished and disgraced when Rosie Ruiz, a 26-year-old office worker, stunned the sports world when she crossed the finish line in a record time of 2 hours, 31 minutes and 56 seconds. Later, after an investigation, she was stripped of the honor of winning the marathon when evidence showed that she had not run the entire race.
1984 - David Palmer pitched only the fourth shortened, perfect game in major-league baseball history. Palmer was pitching the Montreal Expos to a 4-0 lead over the St. Louis Cardinals when the home plate umpire called the game in five innings when the rains came. Palmer had made 57 pitches.
Apr 22 10 12:57 PM
In truth, there had been egg rolls in Washington, D.C. as far back as the mid-1860s, but they had been held on the rolling green hills of the Capitol Building. Since the grounds of the Capitol were looking pretty shabby after the 1876 Easter event, the U.S. Congress passed a law preventing the lawns at the Capitol from being used for any children’s activities ... including egg hunting and rolling. Rain washed out the first opportunity for a White House egg roll in 1877. But, President Hayes came to the children’s rescue for the next year’s Easter Monday.
Today, the Egg Roll is still held the day after Easter on the South Lawn of the White House, hosted by the President of the United States and the First Lady. The Vice President and his wife also attend the event as do other noted celebrities, including the official White House Easter Bunny. The Egg Roll usually follows a traditional Easter Egg Hunt on the grounds, as well. Roll on!
1974 - Redbone won a gold record for the single, Come and Get Your Love. The group, playing American Indian ‘swamp rock’, formed in Los Angeles in 1968. Lolly and Pat Vegas, brothers, had been session musicians and worked on the Shindig TV show. Anthony Bellamy and Peter De Poe were also members of the group. Redbone had one other hit, The Witch Queen of New Orleans. The top five hit, Come and Get Your Love, was the group’s second and final chart success.
1952Wheel of Fortune - Kay StarrAny Time - Eddie FisherBe My Life’s Companion - The Mills Brothers(When You Feel like You’re in Love) Don’t Just Stand There - Carl Smith
1960The Theme from "A Summer Place" - Percy FaithGreenfields - The Brothers FourSweet Nothin’s - Brenda LeeHe’ll Have to Go - Jim Reeves
1968Honey - Bobby GoldsboroCry like a Baby - The Box TopsLady Madonna - The BeatlesFist City - Loretta Lynn
1976Disco Lady - Johnnie TaylorLet Your Love Flow - Bellamy BrothersRight Back Where We Started From - Maxine NightingaleDrinkin’ My Baby (Off My Mind) - Eddie Rabbitt
1984Against All Odds (Take a Look at Me Now) - Phil CollinsHello - Lionel RichieHold Me Now - The Thompson TwinsThe Yellow Rose - Johnny Lee with Lane Brodykittencaboudle
Apr 23 10 1:28 PM
St George's Day is known as the Feast of Saint George by Palestinians and is celebrated in the Monastery of Saint George in al-Khader, near Bethlehem. It is also known as Georgemas.St George was a brave Roman soldier who protested against the Romans' torture of Christians and died for his beliefs. The popularity of St George in England stems from the time of the early Crusades when it is said that the Normans saw him in a vision and were victorious."Most Famous Story.....St. George And The Dragon"St. George travelled for many months by land and sea until he came to Libya. Here he met a poor hermit who told him that everyone in that land was in great distress, for a dragon had long ravaged the country.
'Every day,' said the old man, 'he demands the sacrifice of a beautiful maiden and now all the young girls have been killed. The king's daughter alone remains, and unless we can find a knight who can slay the dragon she will be sacrificed tomorrow. The king of Egypt will give his daughter in marriage to the champion who overcomes this terrible monster.'When St. George heard this story, he was determined to try and save the princess, so he rested that night in the hermit's hut, and at daybreak set out to the valley where the dragon lived. When he drew near he saw a little procession of women, headed by a beautiful girl dressed in pure Arabian silk. The princess Sabra was being led by her attendants to the place of death. The knight spurred his horse and overtook the ladies. He comforted them with brave words and persuaded the princess to return to the palace. Then he entered the valley.As soon as the dragon saw him it rushed from its cave, roaring with a sound louder than thunder. Its head was immense and its tail fifty feet long. But St. George was not afraid. He struck the monster with his spear, hoping he would wound it. The dragon's scales were so hard that the spear broke into a thousand pieces. and St. George fell from his horse. Fortunately he rolled under an enchanted orange tree against which poison could not prevail, so that the venomous dragon was unable to hurt him. Within a few minutes he had recovered his strength and was able to fight again.He smote the beast with his sword but the dragon poured poison on him and his armour split in two. Once more he refreshed himself from the orange tree and then, with his sword in his hand, he rushed at the dragon and pierced it under the wing where there were no scales, so that it fell dead at his feet.
St George's Day is celebrated by the several nations, kingdoms, countries, and cities of which Saint George is the patron saint. St George's Day is also England's National Day. Most countries which observe St George's Day celebrate it on April 23, the traditionally accepted date of Saint George's death in 303 AD. This day is May 6 for Eastern Orthodox Old Calendarists, who use the Julian calendar.In England St. George's Day is on a par with Christmas from the early 15th century. However, this tradition had waned by the end of the 18th century after the union of England and Scotland.A traditional custom at this time was to wear a red rose in one's lapel, though with changes in fashion this is no longer common. Another custom is to fly or adorn the St George's Cross flag in some way: pubs in particular can be seen on April 23 festooned with garlands of St George's crosses. However, the modern association of the St George's Cross with sports such as football, cricket and rugby means that this tradition is rare outside this context. It is customary for the hymn "Jerusalem" to be sung in cathedrals, churches and chapels on St George's Day, or on the Sunday closest to it.
There is a growing reaction to the recent indifference to St George's Day. Organizations such as English Heritage, and the Royal Society of Saint George (a non-political English national society founded in 1894) have been joined by the more prominent St George's Day Events company (founded in 2002), with the specific aim of encouraging celebrations. Other organisations like the St George Unofficial Bank Holiday are encouraging people to be more proactive by taking the day off work (an unofficial bank holiday). They seem to be having some effect. On the other hand, there have also been calls to replace St George as patron saint of England, on the grounds that he was an obscure figure who had no direct connection with the country. However there is no obvious consensus as to whom to replace him with, though names suggested include Edmund the Martyr, Cuthbert of Lindisfarne, or Saint Alban, with the latter having topped a BBC Radio 4 poll on the subject.
In early 2009 Mayor of London Boris Johnson spearheaded a campaign to encourage the celebration of St George's Day.
A motion picture projection device called the Phantoscope later replaced the Kinetoscope in 1895. C. Francis Jenkins and Thomas Armat developed the Phantoscope. Edison was slow to develop a projection system at this time, since the Kinetoscopes were having a lot of success. However, films projected for large audiences could generate more profits since fewer machines were needed in proportion to the number of viewers. Hence, other inventors tried to develop their own projection systems.
The Phantoscope was very successful when it was first introduced. Its first public demonstration was in Atlanta in September 1895 at the Cotton States Exposition. Soon after its release, Jenkins and Armat decided to part ways, with each claiming sole credit for the invention. Armat showed the Phantoscope to Raff and Gammon, owners of the Kinetoscope Company, who recognized its potential to secure profits in the face of the declining kinetoscope business. They negotiated with Armat to purchase rights to the Phantoscope and approached Edison for his approval. The Edison Manufacturing Company agreed to manufacture the machine and to produce films for it, but on the condition it be advertised as a new Edison invention named the http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitascope style="LINE-HEIGHT: 16px" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitascope">Vitascope. The Edison Company later developed its own projector known as the Projectoscope, or Projecting Kinetoscope in 1896, and abandoned marketing the Vitascope.
Other competitors soon displayed their own projection systems in American theaters. The Vitascope, along with many of the competing projectors, became a popular attraction in a variety of vaudeville theaters in major cities across the United States. Motion pictures soon became starring attractions on the vaudeville bill. Exhibitors could choose the films they wanted from the Edison inventory and sequence them in whatever order they wished.
If, when you spin the zoetrope, you look over the top of the drum at the drawings instead of looking through the slots all you will see is a blur. The illusion of motion is gone. The slots of the zoetrope simulate flashes of light, creating a strobe. Persistence of vision is a stroboscopic effect. The images you see must be interrupted by moments of darkness in order for the illusion to work.Persistence of vision, first noted in 1820 by Peter Mark Roget, refers to the length of time the retina (the "screen" at the back of our eyes which is sensitive to light) retains an image. If we see a light flash every tenth of a second or less, we perceive it as continuous. The impression of each flash of light remains, or persists, in the retina for at least one-tenth of a second. Because of this persistence, we can't tell where one flash ends Movies are composed of shots of different characters and events taken from a variety of angles and distances edited together. A skilled editor can take advantage of the phi phenomenon to maximize the illusion of continuity so that you may not consciously notice the cuts. But you, as the viewer, are most responsible for continuity. You see the shots together, and your mind creates a world from them which seems to have its own space and time.
The zoetrope and other nineteenth century animation devices such as the flipbook, thaumatrope, praxinoscope and mutoscope were steps in the development of film and television. On the surface, modern media technologies look different from the optical toys of the 1800s, but they share common properties. The zoetrope has slots that create a stroboscopic effect. Movie projectors have a shutter that interrupts the light from the projector bulb as the film advances through the gate. The strobe of the projector shutter keeps the film from blurring. Video images are scanned onto your television by a beam which zig-zags across the screen from top to bottom twice for each frame. In between each frame is a little black, which you may see as a roll-bar when your television's vertical hold needs adjustment.
The zoetrope's speed is variable. The faster it turns, the smoother the motion appears. When the zoetrope slows down so that each image is seen for a tenth of a second or more, the illusion of movement begins to break down and the strobe is more obvious. Film projectors usually run at a rate of 24 frames, or pictures, per second. VCR and DVD players play and/or record at a rate of 30 frames per second. But old silent movie projectors run at 16 or 18 frames per second. They are so slow they seem to flicker.
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